Social Security number - Wikipedia


social security number assignment

The Area Number is assigned by the geographical region. Prior to , cards were issued in local Social Security offices around the country and the Area Number . Apr 07,  · Since , numbers have been issued by the central office. The first three (3) digits of a person’s social security number are determined by the ZIP Code of the mailing address shown on the application for a social security number. Previously, prior to , social security numbers were assigned by SSA field offices. In the United States, a Social Security number (SSN) is a nine-digit number issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section (c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified number is issued to an individual by the Social Security Administration, an independent agency of the United States government.

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The number is issued to an individual by the Social Security Administrationan independent agency of the United States government, social security number assignment. Although its primary purpose is to track individuals for Social Security purposes, [1] the Social Security number has become a de facto national identification number for taxation and other purposes.

Within three months, 25 million numbers were issued. On November 24,1, of the nation's 45, post offices were designated "typing centers" to type up Social Security cards that were then sent to Washington, D. On December 1,as part of the publicity campaign for the new program, Joseph L.

Fay of the Social Security Administration selected a record from the top of the first stack of 1, records and announced that the first Social Security number in history was assigned to John David Sweeney, Jr. Beforepeople often did not obtain a Social Security number until the age of about 14, social security number assignment, [7] since the numbers were used for income tracking purposes, and those under that age seldom had substantial income.

During the first year of the Tax Reform Act, this anti-fraud change resulted in seven million fewer minor dependents being claimed. The disappearance of these dependents is believed to have involved either children who never existed or tax deductions improperly claimed by non-custodial parents. The original purpose of this number was to track individuals' accounts within the Social Security program.

It has since come to be used as an identifier for individuals within the United States, although rare errors occur where duplicates do exist. As numbers are now assigned by the central issuing office of the SSA, it is unlikely that duplication will ever occur again. A few duplications did occur when prenumbered cards were sent out to regional SSA offices and originally Post Offices.

Employee, patient, student, and credit records are sometimes indexed by Social Security number. The U.

Armed Forces has used the Social Security number as an identification number for Army and Air Force personnel since July 1,the Navy and Marine Corps for their personnel since January 1,and the Coast Guard for their personnel since October 1, Social Security was originally a universal tax, but when Medicare was passed inobjecting religious groups in existence prior to were allowed to opt out of the system.

However, a Social Security number is required for parents to claim their children as dependents for federal income tax purposes, [12] and the Internal Revenue Service requires all corporations to obtain SSNs or alternative identifying numbers from their employees, as described below.

The Old Order Amish have fought to prevent universal Social Security by overturning rules such as a requirement to provide a Social Security number for a hunting license, social security number assignment.

Social Security cards printed from January until January expressly stated that people should not use the number and card for identification. Since then, Social Security numbers have become de facto national identification numbers. All it does is confirm that a particular number has been issued to a particular name. Instead, a driver's license or state ID card is used as an identification for adults. Internal Revenue Code section d provides: "The social security account number issued to an individual for purposes of section c 2 A of social security number assignment Social Security Act [codified as 42 U.

The Internal Revenue Code also provides, when required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary [of the Treasury or his delegate]:. According to U. Treasury regulations, any person who, after October 31,works as an employee for wages subject to Social Security taxes, Medicare taxes, or U. A social security number assignment who is not eligible to have a Social Security number must obtain an alternative Taxpayer Identification Number. Three different types of Social Security cards are issued.

The most common type contains the cardholder's name and number. Such cards are issued to U. There are also two restricted types of Social Security cards:. Many citizens and privacy advocates are concerned about the disclosure and processing of Social Security numbers, social security number assignment. Furthermore, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have demonstrated an algorithm that uses publicly available personal information to reconstruct a given SSN.

The SSN is frequently used by those involved in identity theftsince it is interconnected with many other forms of identification, and because people asking for it treat it as an authenticator. Financial institutions generally require an SSN to set up bank accountscredit cardsand social security number assignment because they assume that no one except the person it was issued to knows it. Exacerbating the problem of using the Social Security number as an identifier is the fact that the Social Security card contains no biometric identifiers of any sort, making it essentially impossible to tell whether a person using a certain SSN truly social security number assignment to someone without relying on other documentation which may itself have been falsely procured through use of the fraudulent SSN.

Congress has proposed federal laws that restrict the use of SSNs for identification and bans their use for a number of commercial purposes—e. Tax return preparers must obtain and use a Preparer Tax Identification Number PTIN to include on their client's tax returns as part of signature requirements. Day care services have tax benefits, social security number assignment, and even a sole proprietor should give parents an EIN employer identification number to use on their tax return, social security number assignment.

The Social Security Administration has suggested that, if asked to provide his or her Social Security number, a citizen should ask which law requires its use. Identity confusion has also occurred because of the use of local Social Security numbers by the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau, whose numbers overlap with those of residents of New Hampshire and Maine. A person can request a new Social Security number, but only under certain conditions; [29].

For all of these conditions, credible third-party evidence such as a restraining order or police report is required. Prior to the randomization process, the first three digits or area number were assigned by geographical region. Prior tocards were issued in local Social Security offices around the country and the area number represented the office code where the card was issued. This did not necessarily have to be in the area where the applicant lived, since a person could apply for their card in any Social Security office.

Beginning inwhen the SSA began assigning SSNs and issuing cards centrally from Baltimorethe area number was assigned based on the ZIP Code in the mailing address provided on the application for the original Social Security card.

The applicant's mailing address did not have to be the same as their place of residence. Thus, the area number did not necessarily represent the state of residence of the applicant regardless of whether the card was issued prior to, or after, Generally, numbers were assigned beginning in the northeast and moving south and westward, so that people applying from addresses on the east coast had the lowest numbers and those on the west coast had the highest numbers.

As the areas assigned to a locality were exhausted, new areas from the pool were assigned, so some states had noncontiguous groups of numbers.

The middle two digits or group number range from 01 to Even before SSN randomization, the group numbers were not assigned consecutively within an area. Instead, for administrative reasons, group numbers were issued in the following order: social security number assignment. The last four digits are serial numbers. Before SSN randomization took effect, they represented a straight numerical sequence of digits from to within the group. Prior to June 25,a valid SSN could not have an area number between andsocial security number assignment, or abovethe highest area number the Social Security Administration had allocated.

Effective June 25,the SSA assigns SSNs randomly and allows for the assignment of area numbers between and and above through the s. Untilthe SSA published the last group number used for each area number, social security number assignment. Now numbers are assigned randomly, and fraudulent SSNs are not easily detectable with publicly available information.

Many online services, however, provide SSN validation, social security number assignment. Unlike many similar numbers, no check digit is included.

It has issued over million since the start of the program, and at a use rate of about 5. It says it has enough to last several generations without reuse or changing the number of digits. Some SSNs used in advertising have rendered those numbers invalid. One famous instance of this occurred in when the E. Ferree Company in Lockport, social security number assignment, New Yorkdecided to promote its product by showing how a Social Security card would fit into its wallets.

A sample card, used for display purposes, was placed in each wallet, which social security number assignment sold by Woolworth and other department stores across the country; the wallet manufacturer's vice president and treasurer Douglas Patterson used the actual SSN of his secretary, Hilda Schrader Whitcher. Even though the card was printed in red the real card is printed in blue and had "Specimen" printed across the front, many people used Whitcher's SSN as their own.

The Social Security Administration's account of the incident also claims that the fake card was half the size of a real card, despite a miniature card's being useless for its purpose and despite Whitcher's holding two cards of apparently identical size in the accompanying photograph. Over time, the number that appeared has been claimed by a total of over 40, social security number assignment, people as their own.

However, the number was found to be in use by 12 individuals as late as More recently, Todd Davis distributed his SSN in advertisements for his company's LifeLock identity theft protection service, which allowed his identity to be stolen social security number assignment a dozen times. List showing the geographical location of the first three digits of the social security numbers assigned in the United States and its territories from until June 25 Repeated numbers indicate that they have been transferred to another location or they're shared by more than one location.

Among its changesit eliminates the geographical significance of the first three digits of the SSN, previously referred to as the Area Number, by no longer allocating the Area Numbers for assignment to individuals in specific states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nine-digit number issued to U. Social Security Bulletin.

United States Social Security Administration. Retrieved October 19, social security number assignment, American Chronicle. Archived from social security number assignment original on June 29, Social Security History.

Social security number assignment Standard Examiner, social security number assignment. Ogden, Utah. December 2, Spring Social Security Journal. Statistics in Medicine. December National Tax Journal. Social Security Administration. National Archives. The Chippewa Herald. August 30, The New York Times. April 29,


Decoding Social Security Numbers in One Step


social security number assignment


The Area Number is assigned by the geographical region. Prior to , cards were issued in local Social Security offices around the country and the Area Number . However, New Hampshire was ultimately given the area number designator so that social security number could be assigned to Social Security Board Chairman John G. Winant, who was a three-time governor of the state. 9. Winant eventually declined the honor of having the lowest social security card Len Penzo. In the United States, a Social Security number (SSN) is a nine-digit number issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section (c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified number is issued to an individual by the Social Security Administration, an independent agency of the United States government.